| The various areas of
research appear below in approximate time order with the
first. There has been considerable overlap between
projects at various
Theory of Mind
This area of research has been a long collaboration with
Sam Adams in
IBM Research. The problem we attacked was how to
model a theory of
mind in which a General Artificial Intelligence (AGI)
system is assumed
to be embodied, i.e., it has internal and external sensory
input and it
is in constant active interaction with a changing world.
We also took
the position that AGI is not possible without modeling
"superstition" and "forgetfulness." (Those words are
because they are only approximations of the more formal
This work was presented by Sam Adams at the 2007
Summit in San Francisco, Sept. 8-9, Transcript
interview and commentary
are on line.
- Adams, S.S. & Burbeck, S. Beyond
the Octopus: Towards a human like mind.
A Chapter in Theoretical
Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence
(by Pei Wang and Ben
Goertzel) Atlantis Press, Paris, 2012, ISBN:
relatively late draft of whch is available
- Latta, C., Alvarado, N., Adams, S.S., & Burbeck,
S. An expressive system for
animating characters or
endowing robots with affective displays. In L.
Canamero & R.
Aylett, (Eds.), Animating Expressive Characters for
Interactions. UK: Advances in Consciousness Research
- Adams, S.S., Alvarado, N., Burbeck, S. & Latta,
(2002). Bootstrapping semantics
in an autonomic
computing system. Fourth International Workshop
Semiotics for Intelligent Systems, Joint Conference on
Systems (JCIS), Chapel Hill, NC. An expanded version
will be published
as a chapter in a book based on the proceedings,
edited by A. Meystel,
to be published by John Wiley & Sons.
- Alvarado, N., Adams, S.S., Burbeck, S. & Latta,
the Turing Test:
Performance metrics for evaluating a computer
simulation of the human
mind. Proceedings of The 2nd International
Development and Learning (ICDL02), Cambridge, MA, IEEE
- Adams, S.S., S. Burbeck, N. Alvarado, and C. Latta.
Project Joshua Blue:
common sense via common experience, IBM
Research, USA, in AAAI Fall
Symposium on Anchoring Symbols to Sensor Data in
Single and Multiple
Proceedings, October, 2001
Archiving Digital Records
From 2006 through 2008 I worked with the Collaborative
Records Project (CERP), a joint effort of the
archiving groups at The
Archive Center and the Smithsonian
Historical archives differ from corporate email archives.
archives must be preserved for much longer, they must deal
messages generated by a much more diverse set of email
records must be preserved in a way that they can be
decades hence. We designed and built a working prototype
converted email in the common .mbox format to an XML
conforming to the Mail-Account
schema, a general XML schema co-developed with the
North Carolina State Archives. The code, which is in
is open source and freely available here.
Archiving Conference Presentations
The CERP project was completed December, 2008. The work
presented at several archiving conferences. Examples
Archiving E-mail, Spring Meeting of the Society
Carolina Archivists, Raleigh, NC, March 7, 2008.
- More Than One Way to Meet the Challenge: Systematic
Approaches to the Capture and preservation of Complex
Artifacts, The Midwest Archiving Conference 2008
Louisville, KY, April 17-19, 2008.
Digital Dilemmas: Archiving E-Mail, Association
Archivists, Annual Conference, June 10, 2008 -
- Society of American Archivists Annual Conference,
Capturing the E-Tiger; New Tools for Email
The Interface Between Biology and Computing
As many have noted, computing systems and biological
similar characteristics (see for example, this 2005
Academy Report). Both fields are especially relevant
these days, as
is the interface between them. Researchers in each field
from the other field useful. Biologists increasingly use
their work. The new biological area called "Systems
strongly dependent upon computational techniques. And
how very complex biological systems are architected can
researchers ideas about how to design and manage complex
especially those immersed in the Web.
- Burbeck & Jordan, K. An assessment of
the role of
computing in systems biology. In the IBM Journal
of Research and
on Systems Biology, K. Jordan & S. Burbeck,
Editors. Volume 50, Number 6, 2006.
Complexity and the Evolution of Computing, 2004
- Burbeck, Brown, P., Brown, K., Chamberlin, D.,
Kriechbaum, W., Rice. J. & Tenner, J. Database
Systems Biology. IBM Academy of Technology Workshop
- Burbeck. Evolution of Multicellular Computing:
with Multicellular Life (pdf).
Seminar presentation, Department of Computer Science,
Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, Dec, 21, 2009.
- Jordan, K. & Burbeck. What is Systems Biology:
Opportunity for Computational Science, Math and
SIAM-SMB Conference on
the Life Sciences, Raleigh, NC., July 31 -
August 4, 2006.
- Burbeck. TII/Vanguard
The Challenge of Complexity, Los Angeles,
September 27-28, 2004
- Burbeck. An assessment of Computational Systems
from a computing perspective (presentation
Genentech/CMEA Ventures Symposium on Systems Biology,
- Catalyzing Inquiry at the Interface of Computing and
Biology, J. C. Wooley & H. S. Lin, The National
2005. Preface and Table of Contents available here
(pdf). Discussion of the multicellular metaphor
- Bio-2003, Published by Burrill & Co., San
(SOA), Web Services and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Software
To some this juxtaposition of topics may seem strange.
What they share
is that they are different varieties of distributed (what
I now call
multicellular) systems. SOA and Web Services seem at first
to be much
more structured than P2P software. But they simply exploit
kinds of structure. Tim O'Reilly makes
similar case. The messaging between P2P nodes is
even though the identity of the collaborating systems is
advance. My earliest work on this topic was at IBM
Research where I
investigated the scaling properties of a random
forwarding message architecture for distributing
randomly connected networks. That work was done in 1997,
file sharing burst upon the scene.
- Burbeck, Peer-to-Peer Computing, IBM Academy of
Workshop Report, July 16, 2001
- Burbeck, The
e-business services. IBM DeveloperWorks website,
- Burbeck & Steve Graham, Creating
in a service-oriented architecture, IBM
website, December, 2000
- Burbeck & Sam S. Adams. Resource
in a fully decentralized market of agents: the
approach. (Internal IBM Whitepaper), 1998.
Summit, San Francisco, September 19, 2000. --
participant. Some raw notes from that summit are
- Intel Peer-to-Peer Working Group (San Jose,
- World Internet Center "Thinktank on Peer-to-Peer"
Alto, March, 2001) Keynote Address
- European Conference on Peer-to-Peer (Amsterdam,
2001) -- Speaker
- O'Reilly Peer-to-Peer Conference (San Francisco,
14-16, 2001) -- Program Committee and Panel
International Management Institute Conference on
(Sophia Atipolis, France, March, 2001) Speaker
- O'Reilly Peer-to-Peer Conference (Washington DC,
2001) -- speaker ( see
- Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive
Technologies, Andrew Oram, Nelson Minar & Clay
& Associates, 2001
Open-Source Software (OSS)
A great deal of credit for IBM's current good standing in
community is due to the two guys James
Barry and Yen-Ping Shan, who in 1998 formed the
between IBM and Apache. That very successful project
existence proof that getting IBM to participate in OSS was
far from easy. As it turned out, Shan took so many arrows
in his back
that he left IBM soon thereafter.
The Apache deal was a tactical move that was driven in
large part by
the fact that IBM's own Web Serving software was losing
out to both
Microsoft's IIS and Apache. I was one of the small group
of very early
leaders within IBM (where there's never just one leader)
it would be strategically advantageous for IBM to
open-source software and fold it into IBM's business
I participated in the Corporate Task Force that formed
strategy and led the group in 1999 (together with Dan Frye
auspices of the Corporate Technology Council), that
corporate strategy and the business case for IBM to
embrace Open Source
software. It was bad form then, and perhaps even now, to
acknowledge that the strategy was aimed primarily at
Microsoft and, to
some degree, at Sun. However, since I instigated and led
team and wrote the majority of the resulting report to the
CTC, I can
the 2002 ZDNet story had it mostly right when they
"Open-source, widely viewed as a way for the development
participate in the evolution of software that's owned by
shared by everyone, was now a competitive weapon..." Much
of the rest
of that article is accurate too.
Getting IBM to take a bold strategic leap is a bit like
mating with a
female Black Widow spider. The anecdotes in the last
section of this Salon story give the flavor of the
and misunderstandings that the OSS revolution stirred up
within IBM. It
mentions just a few of the players and tends to get their
to boot. But IBM is so large, riven by rivalries, and
confused that it
would be a massive undertaking to reconstruct an accurate
that Open Source has completely remade the landscape of
Industry, everyone who could possibly make a claim to be
fancies that their efforts, or their executive decisions,
instrumental in that success. Credit tends to be
attributed to those
with access to the biggest megaphone: IBM's corporate PR
- Burbeck, Capek, P., et al. Open-Source Software:
Implications for IBM. IBM Academy of Technology Report
Confidential), September, 1999.
My interest in Smalltalk and Object-Oriented Software
began in 1985
when a small group I led at the Linus Pauling Institute
PARC's Smalltalk-80 to the IBM PC-AT. We then spun out a
(long since defunct) to commercialize that port. One thing
another and it became a central focus for my work until
the late '90s
- Burbeck & S. G. Graham. Implementation
of a Design Virtual Machine. IBM Technical
- Burbeck & S. G. Graham. A design
virtual machine for
static analysis of Smalltalk. IBM Technical
- Burbeck. Real-Time
Metrics for Smalltalk Methods. IBM Systems
35(2), pp. 204-226, 1996
Signatures to Improve Smalltalk Productivity and
- Adams, Sam S., & Burbeck. Software Assets by
Magazine, October, 1992.
- Burbeck. Collecting the Garbage: An Annotated
Discussion. Frameworks, 3(4), 1989, 19-26.
- Burbeck. What is Object-Oriented Programming (OOP).
Developer's Group Newsletter, 7, 1989, 21-25.
- Burbeck. MacApp: Apple's Object-Oriented Toolbox. APDAlog,
Winter 1989, 14-18.
- Burbeck. Applications programming in Smalltalk-80:
use Model-View-Controller (MVC). Softsmarts, Inc.
A Russian language
available. There is also a useful discussion
the MVC architecture pattern at Microsoft
Developer Network and another
of the paradigm in Ruby on Rails.
- OOPSLA-86 (the first ACM Conference on Object
Programming) -- Executive Committee
- OOPSLA-87 -- Program Committee, Technical Reviewer
- MacWorld (Boston '88 and 89, and San Francisco '89)
- SCOOP '89 -- "OOP: Past, Present & Future"
- Software '89 -- Object-Oriented Programming panel
- SCOOP '90 -- Workshop on OO Analysis and Design
- C++ at Work '90 -- Workshop on OO Analysis and
- Software Development (Santa Clara '92) -- Speaker
- ObjectExpo (New York City '92) -- Speaker
- IBM International Conference on Object Technology
Francisco, June 1996) Speaker
- Object-Oriented Information Systems. David Taylor.
Wiley & Sons, 1992.
- Developing Object-Oriented Software for the
Analysis, Design, and Programming. Neal Goldstein
& Jeff Alger.
Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1992.
- Object-Oriented Analysis. Peter Coad & Edward
Yourdan Press, 1991.
- Object-Oriented Design. Peter Coad & Edward
Yourdan Press, 1991.
- Programming with MacApp. David A. Wilson, Larry S.
Rosenstein & Dan Shafer. Addison-Wesley Publishing
From 1980 to 1988, I directed the scientific computing
group at the
Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine in Palo
Alto, CA. That
group helped to pioneer techniques for computerized
analysis and identification of proteins separated in 2-D
PAGE gels --
what is now a part of the field of Proteomics. I also
collaborated with Dr.
Zuckerkandl on DNA sequence analysis research
using novel Fourier Analysis techniques. We sought to find
short sequence motifs at the period of the nucleosome (165
- 200 bp) in
regions of the genome containing human globin genes.
globin DNA sequences available at that time were too short
reliable results. Recently such
has been found by "wet lab" techniques. I also
collaborated with other LPI researchers on several other
- Leavitt, J., Sun-Yu Ng, Varma, M., Latter, G.,
Gunning, P. & Kedes, L. Expression of Transfected
genes: Transitions toward the stable tumorigenic
and Cellular Biology, 7, 1987, 2467-2476. (PubMed)
- Ross, M., Latter, G., Burbeck, & Leavitt, J. Reduced
two-dimensional gels for direct digital imaging of
protein profiles. Electrophoresis, 8,
- Leavitt, J., Sun-Yu Ng, Aebi, U., Varma, M.,
Burbeck, Kedes, L., & Gunning, P. Expression of
beta-actin genes: Alterations of cell morphology and
autoregulation in actin pools. Molecular and
7, 1987, 2457-2466. (PubMed)
- Burbeck. The complexity of computerized
Implication for the design of a 2D-gel workstation.
presented to the EMBL 2D-Gel Workshop, European
Laboratory, Heidleberg, Germany, March 1986.
- Leavitt, J., Latter, G., Lutomski, L., Goldstein,
Burbeck. Tropomyosin isoform switching in tumorigenic
fibroblasts. Molecular and Cellular Biology,
- Goldstein, D., Djeu, J., Latter, G., Burbeck, &
Leavitt, J. Abundant synthesis of the
transformation-induced protein of
neoplastic human fibroblasts, plastin, in normal
Research, 45, 1985, 5643-5647. (PubMed)
- Burbeck, G. I. Latter, E. Metz & J. Leavitt. Neoplastic Human
Fibroblast Proteins are
Related to Epidermal Growth Factor Precursor. Proc.
Academy of Sciences. USA, 81, 1984, 5360-5363.
- Latter, G., Burbeck, Fleming, J. & Leavitt, J.
on Two-dimensional Electrophoresis Gels by
computerized Amino Acid
Analysis. Clinical Chemistry, 30(12),
- Latter, G., Burbeck, Fleming, J., Metz, E. &
J. Measurement of amino acid composition by
microdensitometry: An aid in the identification of
proteins on 2-D
gels. Paper presented to the 4th annual conference on
Electrophoresis, Argonne National Laboratories, June,
- Burbeck. Direct
imaging of radio-labeled 2-D gel beta emissions
micro-channel plate image enhancement. Electrophoresis,
- Burbeck, G. I. Latter, E. Metz & J. Leavitt.
Simultaneous Amino Acid Analysis of 100 Polypeptides
in 2-D Gels by
Computerized Microdensitometry. Paper presented at
- G. I. Latter, E. Metz, Burbeck & J. Leavitt. Measurement
acid composition of proteins by computerized
two dimensional electrophoresis gels. Electrophoresis,
- R. Marcuson, Burbeck, R. L. Emond, G. I. Latter,
Aberth. Normalization and reproducibility of mass
profiles in the
detection of individual differences from urine. Clinical
28, 1982, 1346-1348.
Mathematical Cognitive Psychology
This was the field of my PhD dissertation under Professor
Luce at UC Irvine and Harvard University. My
dissertation writing occurred at UC Irvine. The
experimental portion of
the research was done at Harvard with Duncan Luce and Dave
wonderful William James Hall). I developed novel
for using hazard functions to analyze reaction time
an up-to-date list of references to that work, Google
hazard "Reaction time"].
- Burbeck. Recovering decision latency distributions
reaction time experiments. Paper presented to the
Acoustical Society of
America, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park,
Upon finishing a BA in mathematics at California State
Beach, I joined a research project (the Urban Disorder
was investigating the internal dynamics of the large scale
riots in the '60s, e.g., the Watts Riot in Los Angeles.
involved mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of
and detailed spatial/temporal data on many of the
events" such as arson, looting, rock throwing, etc. See
Clark McPhail's review
for background and a short description of the results of
in the section titled "Temporal and Spatial Variation."
- Burbeck, W. J. Raine, M. J. Abudu Stark. The
riot growth: An epidemiological approach. Journal
Sociology, 6, 1978, 1-22.
- M. J. Abudu Stark, W. J. Raine, Burbeck, & K.
Davison. Some empirical patterns on a riot process. American
Review, 39, 1974, 865-876.
- S. M. Moinat, W. J. Raine, & Burbeck. Black
residents as rioters. Journal of Social Issues,
28, 1972, 45-62
- W. J. Raine, M. J. G. Abudu, Burbeck, & K. K.
Black ghetto violence: A case study inquiry into the
of four Los Angeles event types. Social Problems,
system for synchronizing code with design. Filed
1996, Granted March 16, 1999. Patent No. 5,884,081.
method for categorizing services using canonical
descriptions. Filed January, 2001, Published
July 4, 2002.
Coauthors: Hondo, M. Casler, J.B. Boubez, T.T.,
in Transient Network Communities. Filed March
Granted, June 27, 2006. Coauthor: Wesley, A., Patent
reputations in transient network communities.
Filed March 27,
2002, Granted, February 13, 2007. Coauthor: Wesley,
relationships in transient communities. Filed
March 27, 2002,
Granted, February 20, 2007. Coauthor: Wesley, A.,
apparatus for processing workflow through a gateway.
24, 2002, Granted September 12, 2006. Coauthors:
Casler, J.B., Boubez,
T.T., Graham, S.G., Miller, S., Patent No. 7,107,333.
in decentralized networks. Filed March 27, 2002,
November 28, 2006. Coauthor Wesley, A. Patent No.
reputatuions in transient network communities.
Filed March 27,
2002, :Granted February 13, 2007. Coauthor Wesley, A.
sharing ontology information in a peer-to-peer
June, 2004., Published February 9, 2006.
- System and method for performing service discovery
non-deterministic fallible forwarding. Filed June,
Adams, S. S. & Graham, S. G.
- Apparatus and method for ebusiness service
Filed September, 2000. Coauthors: Hondo, M., Casler,
T.T., Graham, S.G.
method for verifying categorization of services
service description tests. Filed January, 2001.
M., Casler, J.B., Boubez, T.T., Graham, S.G.
crawler apparatus and method related applications.
January, 2001, Granted July 4, 2002. Coauthors:
Casler, J.B., Boubez, T.T., Graham, S.G. Patent